Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 11 - Notes

Recording and Communicating Knowledge


What is Knowledge?

Knowledge is a form of information about any subject. Knowledge is the understanding of any subject.
Exchange of knowledge is important in our life as our lives depend upon the information about variety of subjects.

Knowledge is exchanged:
  • By speaking to someone. (Orally)
  • By writing the information.

Why recording of knowledge is important?

Orally exchanged information can be lost with the years. People can forget the information. Knowledge also remain with the limited number of people.

If the information is written or recorded in some ways then it has better chances to reach to many people and also it will stay intact with the years.

So recording of any information is important. People can read or see this recorded information any time any where.


Earliest Forms of Written Communication

Pictures or Cave Paintings

Cave paintings from Bhimbetka, MP
Picture Source: https://wikipedia.org/




Picture Source: https://wikipedia.org/



Symbols and Signs


Picture Source: https://wikipedia.org/


Scripts

Indus pictograph script - Tablets
Picture Source: https://www.ancient-origins.net/



Sumerian Script.
Picture Source: https://wikipedia.org/



Alphabets (Letters and Numbers) etc.

Tibetan Script.
Picture Source: https://wikipedia.org/




Hindu Arabic Numeral System and others numerals systems
Picture Source: https://wikipedia.org/


How were languages created?

Pictures ⇒ Signs and Symbols ⇒ Scripts ⇒ Alphabets and Numbers ⇒ Language


What is a script?

A system of signs and symbols. Some scripts have pictorial symbols and others have alphabets. These signs and symbols are given some sounds. These sounds make the language.


Examples:
  • Roman alphabets have 26 letters - A to Z.
  • Oldest Indian script - Indus Valley Script
  • Brahmi Script
  • Devanagari Script - Our Hindi letters.
  • Roman Numbers - I, II, III and so on.
  • Hindu-Arabic Numbers - 0 to 9 developed in India about 2000 years ago. Zero (0) was invented in India.

Roman (Latin) Script - Alphabets 
Picture Source: https://wikipedia.org/


Invention of Paper

Ancient Egyptians used the plant stem (Papyrus) to make papers about 4000 years ago. Modern paper was first used by China about 1900 years ago.

The Bark of the tree ⇒ Pulp ⇒ Paper Sheets ⇒ left to dry

Writing books was difficult as writing by hand was slow and laborious. So books were rare before the invention of the printing.

Process of Making of Paper.
Image source: paperslurry.com



Paper Printing

  • Developed in China about 2000 years ago.
  • Flat blocks of wood were cut and designs were cut into the blocks.
  • Ink was applied on these blocks and then these blocks were pressed on the papers.
  • Impressions of the designs were recorded on the papers.
  • It was the Chinese method for books printing.

    Stamp Seals. Similar to block printing.


    Invention of the Printing


    In 1443, Johann Gutenberg used several small metal moulds of the letters for printing in Germany. It was a revolutionary idea in the printing.

    • Moulds of the letters were called the types.
    • These moulds of letters were arranged to form words, sentences and paragraphs. This arrangement was called typesetting.
    • Typesets were applied with ink and pressed on the papers to get the impressions.

      The typesets were arranged as per the requirements. The printing was now easier and faster. More number of books were available to more people.

      Source: https://owlcation.com


      Typesettings.

      Knowledge, Literacy and Progress

      With the technology, printing has become very easy and efficient.
      • Computers, advanced printing technologies have made the recording and sharing of the knowledge very easy and faster.
      • The Printing systems are very compact in size and printing can be done with minimal efforts.
      • There are various applications are available for making and printing the words, pictures etc.
      Sharing of knowledge is very important. People become literate and knowledgeable.

      Literacy and knowledge can help in progress of any country.


      Braille Script

      • Special script for the visually challenged (blind) people.
      • People can use their hands to touch and read the script.
      • The Braille script was developed by Louis Braille in France in 1824.
      • In Braille script, words are printed in dot patterns.
      • These dots are little raised over the surface and can be read by touching them.

      Braille Script Reading. 
      Source: https://www.wikipedia.org