Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 7 - Notes

Saudi Arabia - The Land of Hot Sands

Saudi Arabia is a country in the Middle-East part of the world. It is situated in the Arabian Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula is the largest peninsula of the world.

Peninsula is any land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
  • Red Sea on the West side.
  • Persian Gulf on the East side.
  • Arabian Sea on the South side.
Saudi Arabia in the Arabian Peninsula.
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  • Saudi Arabia is an Islamic country.
  • It is officially called as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Riyadh is the capital city.
  • Jeddah, Mecca, Abha, Buraydah etc are the other important cities.
  • Neighbouring countries
    • Iraq, Jordan on the North side.
    • Yemen, Oman on the South side.
    • Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, U.A.E. on the East side.
National Flag of Saudi Arabia
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  • Salman Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is the King of Saudi Arabia.
  • Mohammad bin Salman is the crown prince.

Domains of Saudi Arabia

  • Most of the area is covered by high rocky plateau with vast desert.
  • Desert is covered with small hills of sand. (Small hills of sand are called sand dunes)
  • Sand dunes move from one place to another place with the strong winds and dust storms.
  • Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world with no rivers.
  • There are no lakes in the Saudi Arabia.
  • There are some Oases present in Saudi Arabia.
    • An Oasis is the place in the desert where the ground water comes to the surface forming a fertile area.
Sand Dunes
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A representative example of an Oasis.
Image by By Sfivat.


  • Climate is very hot and dry as the tropic of cancer passes through the middle of Saudi Arabia.
  • Rainfall is very little.
  • Humidity is very low.
  • The Sun shines bright and hot throughout the year.
  • Nights in the deserts are very cool as the sand cools down quickly.
  • Nights in the winters are very cold.

Vegetation and Agriculture

  • Very little vegetation in the deserts. Cacti and some short shrubs are found.
  • Date palms and some crops such as wheat, barley etc are grown in the oases.
  • Al-Hasa is largest Oasis in Saudi Arabia.

The People of Saudi Arabia

  • Saudi cities are modern and full of modern facilities as the country is very rich.
  • Saudi Society is very traditional.
  • Women in Saudi Arabia must cover their head and bodies when they go out.
  • Traditional dress for women is Abaya. Abaya is long black dress that leaves only eyes exposed.
  • Traditional dress for men is Thobe. Thobe is a loose fitting white clothe. Heads are covered with a white cloth held by in place by a ring.
Abaya and Thobe - The Traditional dresses of Saudi Arabian People.


Traditional people from Saudi Arabia are called Bedouins.
  • Bedouins are the nomadic people.
  • Their occupation is rearing cattle. They keep big flocks of goats, sheep and camel.
  • They move from place to place in search of pastures.
  • They live in tents made of animal skin.
  • They sell animals and animal products  for the food, dates, grains etc.
  • Bedouins are now moving to a settled life.
  • They use Jeeps and cars for moving around.
Bedouins living in tents.
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  • Saudi Arabia is a very rich country as it is the largest exporter of petroleum in the world.
  • Saudi Arabia has the second largest deposit of petroleum after Russia.
  • Petroleum refining, iron and steel, cement and fertilizers etc are the other industries.
  • Wealth and prosperity have increased because the of petroleum and other industries.
  • Highly modern infrastructure is being developed with the money from petroleum.
  • Many people from India go to Saudi Arabia for work in its industries.

Natural Wealth and Prosperity

  • Hot and barren land of Saudi Arabia has the huge deposits of petroleum.
  • The Saudi government has used the natural resources very intelligently for the prosperity.

Islam and Saudi Arabia

  • The Islam religion was founded in Saudi Arabia by Prophet Mohammed.
  • Mecca - the most important pilgrim centre of the Muslims.
  • Medina is another important religious centre.
Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
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