Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 21 - Notes

Chapter 21 - Our Government

The Three Levels of Government

It is not possible for a single government to look after the entire country properly. So, our government has three different levels. All three levels have some responsibilities of work.

  • Local Level ⇒ Village, town or city
  • State Level ⇒ Entire state
  • National Level ⇒ Entire country

👉Structure of the government in India

The Local Government

  • works at the local level.
  • Based in the villages (Rural Administration)
  • Based in the towns or cities (Urban Administration)

The State Government

  • works at the state level.
  • Based in the capital city of a state. (example; Gandhinagar of Gujarat)

The Central Government (or Union Government)

  • works at the national level.
  • Based in the capital city of our country. (New Delhi)

Types of Local Government

Villages ⇒ Panchayati Raj System (Gram Panchayat, Block Panchayat, District Panchayat)
Towns or cities ⇒ Municipal Boards (Municipal Council, Municipal Councils)

Responsibilities of the Government

Some of the responsibilities of a State Government
  • Education facilities
  • Health care facilities
  • Transport
  • Maintaining Law and Order

Some of the responsibilities of the Central Government
  • Defense of the country
  • Relationships with other countries
  • Railways

Some of the responsibilities of a Local Government
  • Water supplies
  • Maintaining cleanliness
  • Fire services

Relationship Between the Centre and the States

The Central Government provides help to the state governments whenever required. All three levels work with cooperation and coordinate wherever required.

The relationship between different levels of government and their responsibilities are clearly mentioned in our Constitution.

The constitution is a set of rules according to which our country is run.

The Central Government

The main responsibility of the Central Government is to make laws for the country and implement them. The Lawmaking body of the Central Government is called the Parliament.

Parts of the Parliament
  1. Lower House (Lok Sabha or the House of the people)
  2. Upper House (Rajya Sabha or the Permanent House or Council of States)
  3. The President


  • Our country is divided into smaller divisions for fair elections. These divisions are called constituencies.
  • One Representative (Leader) is elected from each constituency through the General Elections.
  • People participate in the General Elections. (LOK refers to the people)
  • The working period of Lok Sabha is 5 years.
  • Max Strength of Lok Sabha is 552.
    >> 530 constituencies from all the states.
    >> 20 constituencies from all the Union Territories.
    >> 2 Nominations from the Anglo-Indian Community.
  • Present Lok Sabha strength is 545. (according to 2019 elections)
The Lok Sabha Speaker ensures the smooth proceedings of the House.

Age Criteria

  • For voting ⇒ 18+ years of age.
  • For contesting Lok Sabha Elections ⇒ 25+ years of age
  • For contesting the President elections ⇒ 35+ years of age