Class 6 History Chapter 2 - Exercise - ACE LESSONS ACE LESSONS - Simplifying Your Learning

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Sunday, 27 September 2020

Class 6 History Chapter 2 - Exercise

Chapter 2 - From Hunting - Gathering to Growing Food

Notes + Exercise

How History is divided into various time periods?

  • Stone Age (approximately 2.5 million - 5000 years ago)
  • The time period when people used tools made of stones.
  • In subcontinent, it started roughly about 2 million years ago and ended around 5000 years ago.

Who was living in the subcontinent around 2 million years?

  • People who were living in the subcontinent around 2 million years ago, were the hunters and gatherers.
  • They hunted wild animals, caught fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, leaves, stalks, and eggs.

Why did the hunters and gatherers move from one place to another place?

(A) In search of Food
  • They had eaten up all the animals and plants resources. So they moved to other places in search of food.
  • People moved with the animals while chasing these animals.
  • People moved to different places in different seasons as the plants and trees bear fruits in different seasons.
(B) In search of water
  • People moved in search of water as some water sources were seasonal and others were perennial. (Perennial - Having water throughout the year)
(C) To escape from the natural disasters
(D) To explore new places

How do we know about the hunters and gatherers?

Archaeologists have found the things that were used by the hunters and gatherers. They found tools made of stones, wood, and bones.

How did the hunters and gatherers use these tools?

Stone tools were used:
  • To cut the meat and bones.
  • To scrap bark from the trees and remove the skin of the animals.
  • To chop the fruits and roots.
  • To dig the ground.
  • To chop and cut the wood for firewood.
  • To make spears and arrows by attaching with bones and wood.
  • To stitch the clothes made of animal skins.

Wood was used:
  • To make huts and other tools.
  • To use as firewood.
  • As the handle of the spears and arrows.

Bones were used:
  • As the handles of the spears and arrows.
  • To dig the ground.

How did people choose places to live?

  • Sites near water sources such as rivers and lakes.
  • Sites where they could easily get good quality stones for the tools.
  • Sites where they could find shelter like caves.
  • Sites where food (animals and plants) was easily available.

What is a site in history?

Sites are the places are places where the remains of things (tools, pots, buildings etc.) were found. These were made, used and left behind by people

How do we know that the people were using the fire?

Traces of the ashes suggest that people were using the fire.

People might have used fire:
  • As a source of light and heat.
  • To scare away the wild animals.
  • To roast the meat.

How did Climate change and affect the environment?

  • About 12000 years ago, there was a major change in climate as there was a slight increase in the temperature of the Earth.
  • These warm conditions led to the development of the grasslands and population growth of the animals like deer, antelope, goat, sheep, and cattle, i.e. animals that survived on the grass.

How did the beginning of farming and herding happen?

Beginning of Farming
  • Several grain bearing grasses, including wheat, barley, and rice grew naturally in different parts of the subcontinent.
  • People collected these grains as food once they ripened.
  • People observed plants and learned to grow plants on their own and became farmers.

Beginning of Herding
  • People attracted animals by offering them food and tamed them.
  • Relatively gentle animals like cattle were then made habitual of living near humans.
  • With time, people learned to control these animals and became herders.
  • People offered them food and protected them from wild animals.

What is Domestication?

Domestication is a process in which people grow plants and look after animals. Domestication made animals habitual of human beings.
  • Domestication was a gradual process that took place in many parts of the world.
  • It began about 12,000 years ago.
  • Some of the earliest plants to be domesticated were wheat and barley.
  • The earliest domesticated animals include sheep and goats.

What is Rearing?

The process of taking care of animals for useful animal products (meat, milk, hair, skin, etc.) is called the rearing of animals.

How do we find about the farmers and herders?

  • Archaeologists have found evidence of early farmers and herders in many sites in the subcontinent.
  • Scientists study evidence of plants and animal bones.
  • Burnt grains seeds tell us about the crops that were grown in that region.
  • Bones of the animals can tell us about the animals of that time.

How did people move towards a settled life?

  • When people started growing plants on their own, they had to stay at that place.
  • They had to look after the plants by watering, weeding, and scaring away the animals and birds.
  • People started to make huts and houses for living and started to live a settled life in one place.

Why and how did people store the food?

When people started farming, they had to store the grains for their food and seeds. People stored the grains to keep them suitable for use. People made large clay pots, wove baskets, and dug pits to store the grains.

Similarly, they looked after the animals for animal products and stored the food in the form of living animals.

What are the important Neolithic settlements in the continents?

  • Mehrgarh (Present day Pakistan)
  • Burzhom (Kashmir)
  • Chirand (Bihar)
  • Koldihwa (UP)
  • Mahagra (UP)
  • Hallur (Karnataka)
  • Paiyampalli (Tamil Nadu)
  • Daojali Hading (Assam)

What do we know about Burzhom?

  • Burzhom is a Neolithic site in Kashmir.
  • People lived in Pit-Houses in the Neolithic age to get shelter in cold weather.
  • They used steps to enter and exit these pit-houses.
  • People used cooking hearths to cook food, both indoors and outdoors, as the weather conditions.
  • People wove clothes with cotton and other materials.
  • Wheat, rice, and lentils were part of their diet.
  • People also did the hunting and gathering along with farming.
  • Earthen pots were used to store food, water and to cook food.

What do we know about Mehrgarh?

  • One of the earliest places where people learned to grow barley, wheat, and rear sheep, goats.
  • People started to live in square or rectangular houses.
  • These houses have compartments that might have been used for storage too.
  • Bones of wild animals are also found at this place.
  • Many burial sites are found here where dead people were buried along with animals and other food. People might have believed in some form of life after death.

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