Class 5 Social Studies Chapter 3 - Notes

Movements of the Earth - Rotation and Revolution


The Earth is very big and we are moving with the Earth. So we don't feel the movements of the Earth.
The Earth moves in two different ways.
    1. Rotation - About its own axis
    2. Revolution - In a fixed path around the Sun

Rotation of the Earth

The Earth rotates or spins about its axis. The Earth rotates from west to east direction. So one by one all the places come in front of the Sun.

The places which receive the sun light, will experience day and the dark places will experience night. Thus the rotation of the Earth causes the day and night.


The Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation. Hence we have one full day (one day + one night) of 24 hours.

Image by Arek Socha from Pixabay




Revolution of the Earth

The Earth moves in a fixed path around the Sun. This fixed path is called orbit. The Earth takes 365 days and 6 hours to complete one revolution around the Sun. Therefore, we have one year of 365 day. We avoid these 6 hours for our convenience.

Each we get 6 hours every year and after 4 years, it becomes 24h hours i.e. 1 day.

So 1 day is added to the every 4th year. This year with 366 days is called a leap year.


Formation of Seasons

Since the Earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degree. While moving around the Sun, different parts of the Earth receives different amount of heat due to the tilt of the Earth.

The part which is near and towards the Sun, will receive more heat and it will have summer season.

The part which is little far and away from the Sun, will receive less amount of heat and it will have winter season.

This is reason we have different seasons in different parts of the World.


Heat received by the Earth



Different positions of the Earth over a year and
Important days with respect to these positions of the Earth.


Main Seasons on the Earth

  • Summer
  • Winter
  • Autumn
  • Spring

Summer and Winter Season

In the month of June, the North Pole is tilted towards the Sun and the South Pole is tilted away from the Sun. So the Northern Hemisphere will receive more heat and the Southern Hemisphere will receive less heat.

Therefore, the Northern Hemisphere will have summer in the month of June and the Southern Hemisphere will have winter in the month of June.


In the month of December, the Southern Hemisphere will have summer and the Northern Hemisphere will have winter.


Autumn and Spring Seasons

In the month of March and September, both the Poles are at an equal distance. Hence both the hemispheres receive equal amount of heat.

In March, the Northern Hemisphere will have spring and the Southern Hemisphere will have autumn.
In September, the Northern Hemisphere will have autumn and the Southern Hemisphere will have spring.

Thus due the tilt of the Earth, the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres experience the opposite seasons.

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